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Novel friction pairs for environmentally-friendly automotive brakes


Key facts

Type of research degree
Application deadline
Friday 17 April 2020
Project start date
Thursday 1 October 2020
Country eligibility
UK and EU
Competition funded
Source of funding
Research council
Dr Ali Hassanpour and Dr Shahriar Kosarieh
Additional supervisors
Professor Anne Neville, Professor David Barton
School of Chemical and Process Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering
Research groups/institutes
Complex Systems and Processes, Functional Materials, Products and Devices, Institute of Functional Surfaces
<h2 class="heading hide-accessible">Summary</h2>

Compared to the massive effort aimed at reducing diesel particulate emissions, wear emissions from friction brakes have received far less attention. The alternative electric powertrain vehicles usually employ some form of regenerative braking system but they will continue to require friction brakes for conditions where the regenerative system fails or is less effective such as when the vehicle comes to rest at traffic lights. It is likely therefore that wear emissions from friction brakes, alongside those from tyre/road interactions, will become the major source of atmospheric particulate pollution from road transport in the years ahead. With the emergence of friction materials development, there is a need to fully understand brake pad/disk interactions between current and future friction materials and new materials technology for applications in automotive, high speed rail, airspace, etc. This proposed research will build on our ongoing research and will aim to provide an in-depth understanding of the interactions between the brake pads and disks leading to particle emission with different natures and characteristics as a result of wear. This would provide a knowledge on the mechanisms of particles generation and their characteristics and could present valuable guidelines to minimize particulate emissions from friction brakes whilst reducing the unsprung mass of the vehicle and hence reducing CO2 emissions. The project is a collaborative study between the Schools of Mechanical Engineering and Chemical and Process Engineering and our industrial partners. The main outcome of this proposed research will be development of a friction braking system with optimum tribological performance (good friction characteristics with low wear) leading to less particulate emission generation and a cleaner environment.

<h2 class="heading hide-accessible">Full description</h2>

<p>With increasing demand for e-mobility, ever-increasingly strict particle emission legislations and a need to reduce the hazardous substances form the brake pads; development of novel friction material is becoming more critical than ever. This may alter the generation of third body layer (TBL) on the counterpart (i.e. brake disk) which is crucial for the effectiveness of the tribological system. For more than 20 years, braking research at Leeds has focussed on investigating lightweight alternatives to the standard grey cast iron brake rotor material. Although a number of alternative rotor materials have been considered (notably aluminium MMC&rsquo;s), the most promising candidate now appears to be an alumina-coated unreinforced aluminium alloy which has been demonstrated to be hard-wearing and thermally resistant. Development of a compatible and hard-wearing iron-free friction material would release far less particles, albeit iron free, into the environment.&nbsp;</p> <p>The main objectives of the PhD project are:</p> <ul> <li>To conduct rigorous numerical and experimental studies of brake wear debris generation and air-borne trajectories.</li> <li>To fully characterise the physical, material and mechanical properties of debris particulate matter generated.</li> <li>To investigate the formation, composition and structure of the third body layer from friction material and the underlying tribology.</li> <li>To link the formation, composition and structure of the third body layer to its effects on the brake performance (friction, wear, NVH and particle emissions).</li> </ul>

<h2 class="heading">How to apply</h2>

<p>Formal applications for research degree study should be made online through the&nbsp;<a href="">University&#39;s website</a>. Please state clearly in the research information section&nbsp;that the research degree you wish to be considered for is &lsquo;Novel friction pairs for environmentally-friendly automotive brakes&rsquo; as well as&nbsp;Dr <a href="">Shahriar&nbsp;Kosarieh</a> as your proposed supervisor.</p> <p>If English is not your first language, you must provide evidence that you meet the University&#39;s minimum English language requirements (below).</p> <p><em>We welcome applications from all suitably-qualified candidates, but UK black and minority ethnic (BME) researchers are currently under-represented in our Postgraduate Research community, and we would therefore particularly encourage applications from UK BME candidates. All scholarships will be awarded on the basis of merit.</em></p>

<h2 class="heading heading--sm">Entry requirements</h2>

Applicants to research degree programmes should normally have at least a first class or an upper second class British Bachelors Honours degree (or equivalent) in an appropriate discipline. The criteria for entry for some research degrees may be higher, for example, several faculties, also require a Masters degree. Applicants are advised to check with the relevant School prior to making an application. Applicants who are uncertain about the requirements for a particular research degree are advised to contact the School or Graduate School prior to making an application.

<h2 class="heading heading--sm">English language requirements</h2>

The minimum English language entry requirement for research postgraduate research study is an IELTS of 6.0 overall with at least 5.5 in each component (reading, writing, listening and speaking) or equivalent. The test must be dated within two years of the start date of the course in order to be valid. Some schools and faculties have a higher requirement.

<h2 class="heading">Funding on offer</h2>

<p>UK/EU &ndash; Engineering &amp; Physical Sciences Research Council Studentships paying academic fees of &pound;4,600 for Session 2020/21, together with a maintenance grant of &pound;15,285 for Session 2020/21 paid at standard Research Council rates for 3.5 years. UK applicants will be eligible for a full award paying tuition fees and maintenance. European Union applicants will be eligible for an award paying tuition fees only, except in exceptional circumstances, or where residency has been established for more than 3 years prior to the start of the course. Funding is awarded on a competitive basis.</p>

<h2 class="heading">Contact details</h2>

<p>For further information regarding this&nbsp;project, please contact Dr Shahriar Kosarieh,<br /> e:&nbsp;<a href=""></a></p> <p>For further information regarding the application procedure, please contact Doctoral College Admissions,<br /> e:&nbsp;<a href=""></a>, t: +44 (0)113 343 5057.</p>

<h3 class="heading heading--sm">Linked funding opportunities</h3>
<h3 class="heading heading--sm">Linked research areas</h3>