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Getting Off Gas: How can we use buried infrastructure as a heat source?

PGR-P-617

Key facts

Type of research degree
PhD
Application deadline
Saturday 29 February 2020
Project start date
Thursday 1 October 2020
Country eligibility
UK and EU
Funding
Competition funded
Source of funding
University of Leeds
Supervisors
Dr Catherine Bale and Dr Fleur Loveridge
Schools
School of Chemical and Process Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, School of Earth and Environment
<h2 class="heading hide-accessible">Summary</h2>

The UK Government has a commitment to reach net-zero emissions by 2050. This is a huge challenge for research and practice. While the last five years has seen a 50% reduction in carbon density of the electricity grid (Figure 1), net zero cannot be achieved without also tackling the gas network. This is because 70% of heating is still carried out by direct burning of natural gas, with heating accounting for a third of UK greenhouse gas emissions.

<h2 class="heading hide-accessible">Full description</h2>

<p>With an ever decreasing carbon intensity of electricity, one of the best routes to decarbonise heating is through use of ground thermal energy storage coupled with ground source heat pump systems (Figure 1). However, heat pump systems retain high investments costs, mainly due to the expense of drilling dedicated ground heat exchangers (GHE) and a lack of a suitably skilled workforce and equipment.</p> <p><img 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+yPIPCb7777zgolcfGx+GnjwqVE+OSck6xwPZwPkSdmDiGSERamVaTgQvD5zEIYZtxgFDIsCD+FCIUEM2NhsWOQDR482NZSWrdubQuIa0wNFyMMgacQYpYv3E9uzZ3fcTwKngcffNA+L2o3uKUoiFgU71Bigk9j7B133GETols6Ifo3GNG8+uqrT1lmWA/sl9M3WWpEmttHGBcs8E2C8ec/OxvyACvFWDK0Ach114n8/e/OBo/BhB5GUOR//1fE1FaE9okyREyDtlLpgXel4oAR5u97Et2oo0TVaiwRseUlK/GQtf7jO94hlQa+KzHNeji/+gVEnCkIsbYRTdKs67pA2HC/uWkXC951jxC7HnF88cUXrZWMpct2tyaKVc9xmaUKoWW9a0kjnBQk7Ees/P817w53Cz5+xB6fP0LszpTlguVHDaNv377So0cPew6saa6RGhDXiQsUWEdhwTVxLrfdiOsg/+V0p3IdLOzPencbv+NZcP1AwcY5sVoJDw3UvnluFAhY/biqFO9QYoIfUjAbEF03/YHCi1oAc6MaS8xz0BvJcUVYvvnG+VA2wEUTkVDplyUqxhYCFe58UeLa3CDl+zwtCT2HmG2VrbsnN++99551d2DN4tLAcsfip7GTTgfuvLO4OHC9UBPAskfosJBxcyCOWO/MMkUtgfYAJlRBxLGAsbxxoSD4uGJwpVC73WiMCdoLsKIBYwhXJ8JJl2VcJdSKXbgOLHR3HQWA6y6iDY3roM2B41MQUHgg4gg994UVjpjzO9w8wL5fmTTEdSLo3N/u3bvtPhRuRN6kcMMVizuI41BbcWs7FAjMrctC+4I7K5fiDUrMh19SkPlIeK7lEhTcuUH/+U8x9Vhfb6AzhAyC5YQFFhAQe+Z0dRkwQOSSS5wvpQcC4VqMJUF+Pvz8iK7dVOJa9ZaY8zrkKfQuWPG4IRFxrFxcEjSKYrUj0rhjEDe+Y13z/vhLDRUBx49N4yzTGrrwLLDisYw5Lu+aHje4THCn4Bvv1KmTXY8Vzz403HJcCh785rhImXIx5/1SkFAouLUMfs85EGXyR/PmzW2hxDXiQuW3uIy4HwojBJ9ChmMw7y7XQaGFtU7BhmBT+LEdtw6WO8fEZYOQ49rBjYSFz+95HxR87M95eZbuecs6uNpIBxS2RYECmt8FyoevE6CcKfRGoFbQv7/IH/7grCw6iD0Zw820xcZYqPLUU2JMRt/oYq5x1ChnY+lAkkIUSzKj6wQoRYfaBK4m3EOBEhDFP6h5kSeoNRUF2n8oLNz2nuKiLp0zhYbeYcNE6OVjrDpPQFfAP/7RJ/CEk8CdM2OG7zqVMg89h4YMGaJiX4ZRwS8OXbv6euv89rfOiiBDTQP3zTXX+L7TuPbRRyKMNWDybqVMQ824qC4FJbxQwS8uL77o6xmDJR1M5swRmTLF16Cck86dfYJPuOhjx5yViqKURVTwi0vt2j5BfeyxYodZOGOysny1DLpi5mgsPMUTT4g0b+4LKqcoSplFBT8QDB3qi9XzwgvOilLmpZd8MYMef9xZkQcffOBz6xBWQlGUMokKfqBASF9++Zd4O/4SFSXZxemhQ4MxBc0rr5i3WcDrZGAMov9//0fcC2eloihlCRX8QNGliwgB1nDtFIGII0ck6uuvRX72TQhTZDhf794iPXs6KwoAf/5f/iJyxx3qz1eUMogKfiB5/nlfiIYvv3RWFMLBgxJ55ZUS36uXDeRW5IZfRvsyKpPwEP7yu9/55gsgPpCiKGUKFfxAQrwd4vEgqjSkFgRDznGvLF3q+47FPXas77M/0ECMdU+DMQ3HRYHBWatWibz2mrNCUZSygIZWCDTE5cHynjzZ51+vVcs30xYCT9dJxBa3CoOjmGSdWbRcmBuAIHL16zsrCoCwDsQ5J4pnRF5TthQADcz01/+f/yFgi6+w4RoDODLWa6EV/IWh7IQUJkQCYQrckBeE9WZUr/udkAOE+Sb0Af3buV++sxCawR05TTx7QiMQrsAd8EQIBiLJugHHCKVAzBxGVRK+wIURy0SjhJwjsTk3oRryGrVJaIQzGdFJuARiBxE3h5ANOjgrsHgltIJa+CUBXSOZnxdLnxAH118vcuWVPmsc4R80SOS//xWjLJI9dKhknX++b5/77/fFvuEvhUF+bN7sa6R9/fWii71Lhw4id90lcvvtPt8+ETZzFj5lEASWiJaEEUaUiW8PBAJ74YUXbGhjIPN+9tlnp2a5YvIT9ie+DuuYlJ+MSpwcwhBjpLCOEBqI/7Bhw2wwNkDkx5qaHXF7CItMrHkXRP0V857HjBnjrPEVdFwL++YF91DUaCmETib0MucjRg4hnYt6DCU0UMEPNMQ+x7p32bGDWNE+dw3dIrHIib/DOlPaZ732mqTMny8yaZLI3/4mMmuWL04PIkzly1iQv+LRR0VuuUWkUydnxRniupOAazMiVpbBktq2bZu0aNHCTm/oxnInTDHhh7HWXUHF4mLy/QGmgEZ8iUZ5lylAmcoTC5kCgBj2BFJjPyx3xJ7AZnx3ayYUAsRZIZ48AcooHFyw1AnCRuFBkDOg9kEkTGoHbCe65VtvvXWqAEG0qVlR2BCamFj5CDhQ+3jnnXdspEsXzk2Ezn79+tmw5YQvJ+AZhRpTOL799tu2cOPZUBBSODHhCdethB4q+IGGYF40wLoQWRNffcuW5mnn8bhNRjoVfROY8QuLji6Us2eLUQJfeAT62f/4o29kL9Z/jpm6zpic1X6uDfdOiLNrw2H55B8L5bMXvpfP/rXYr+Xjvy6QZdN8c8MSr54QyVj6btx4ZrYivjvb+UxMeQSP0MGIX6tWrU65ehBmrHUCu2GN4+4B/hJGGOEnwiQC6q4nAiUxbhBpYt+7ULDgymEOWtwtgDvnkksusYUA18MEKVwzhQnuGFw6BBhE3ImGyUxdhHJmAhNqG4Qz5vcuiDiuKiKB4j76r6l5UqhwD+xLjH8ieOJyYj33fvnll5+6XyW0UMEPNAinqR7bUa100zQWmMnVzsY8oOpMA2xucAVhmeFnx/Ink+LfJ15OnTqnFxJnynPPiTHrRJgrtV493+cQJzomSqrULC+VzVKlZjn/ltrlJb68z+JGQJ966ilroTObFG4dpgAkRjxii/AhhhQE+PkJI8xMboAvnvjz1A6w8hFsCg3gL2IJrOcYwHnwnw8dOtTGtkeUc0LBwjUh2MTFpyAhbDEWOAu1DwoKChCuiZoD7Vv4iqk1MBERYZax5LHgidePa8q9LkIb41bi9xQ+FEacB7hfjk1sfFxVTEnqurEocJTQQwW/JMBSxnUzcaJPuIuDsSwFv+7Klb+4d+i3z8TrxcWIlZ0wxYiGMT1LPYxySVCrYWW58sFWcvl9LaTnvf4tvQZdJM271rPuFBpnEUGEnO+IIxYxbhTcM1jQCCAuHdwfiCoCizX92muv2Tj3NNoixrh5sMzduPOIL0JJwcAxEGGsZ7YTi54JTmgvcKFg4BrcGPdMKk7cfI6NdY9FjuB37tzZXoNbI3H/4t4BzknBwSQnd955p3X/YNkD90UD77hx42whQeGA9c52XDqIPNs5Fs8FFxYhlqlRKKGH9tIJMq4VWGAVmR4ahDumFw9w71j+Ti+PYoM/GQufWDw0GNOLp5hgMSJKJUVJ9NJBGLFuWRBV3CG4SXCzIJYINi4dhJz7Y53b6wJrmJoA75FGUKxlwhFzLESfCVIQdWa7QqT5PWkZAXcbShF+plZ0Y5+zD+toUyDNc020JeAaYhuuINocqIUgxriWEHZEnHTFdVJYUDugMKF2ghuqXbt29lp4P9Q0mIicydLnz59vj4ULCXcOPYlwDXGP3Au1EWowtCtQ0JXkfAfhBu+OdxbsXjo6AUqQQezJpDm73eUJDW3EuqdRmInVBw8+8x46+cFcvUYYits/nyTluhdKipKcAAXLGwHND+7PdcnkJmd2cvch07rPIudvyciu4VLYOQuCNORvfijoPFwnBVbOe8t57VCc6yzL8NzIE8GeAEUFP8j4Lfilwdq1vhARhHsmuuYZQpIKZcFXlEDjFcFXH77yC4j83XeL/P73zgpFUcIJFXzldBgFTPfPqVOdFYqihAsq+Mrp0BBM4y1WvqlKKooSPqjgK7/moYd8PXd08nNFCStU8JVfQ4M4I3oJu7x/v7NSUZRQRwVfyZsrrmDYqa8rqKIoYUGRBJ9BGQzNZmFABl0KlTAGK5/RwjqqUlHCAr8Fn1F6H374oY0YyPBzRhWeieDzGwZz5IQ+qooHIWwz4Zp/+1tnhaIooYzfoRUQfIZuE5mPv+cbMShs8BMjCYmzTdwQAkMxfJtCY+HChTa4FPFB5s6da0O8MuScIdusL4gyGVohmBCwjeBthHN2wgX7A+++JAfHldQEKO44RHe0Kd/zG1Wr/BrCPkDOd89gSdYXlrddeOaEliZ+D6EhiGfE73nfuUcCA4OTOF9paAKDp9AvrtGdwAZIj3ldm4tXQisU+oRw4xAdj5l9CLrEZyL6EXeDmygIHgyxSIiwx0UzUQThVom3TQxuAkdxnPvvv9/GKSF+t+IxKlcW+dOffLH5mWg9V+0s3Jg0aZKtvQJptyhpkqiXiI+XQXyJkVNSIM6cA7Em9g7gAsag8xfCMPMbRI7jEZsIMSXMc15eBeIDEY+oNGAuATwcboHG9aBrBJ979dVX7QhwL1Oo4FOSYUUxOUPXrl3td0o5bpTP+UGiwqInoqAbP5yX1rhxYyvuvEyi7vGdkKxMNkEUwYKO6aIWVykzcKAvhg9x/pl0JZ/ZlrzOG1u+kp3JBYsdwdFcUSEt8h0weJjohDQLGDuIEsYP6Zaa55gxY+SDDz44JXSA+BHgDKFwI2FSkPAbYB3HZj8ianIOxDKnSFKIICQI3irmIs4F+YzfcVzOBVw7xyavErwNi5njIExMgoKxBYgpgum6VYmSSRROat6sQ3BzR8akQHSvn/NxLixRzkeQNixfQksPHz7cHovYO1joBJIjyFxuKCiJzMnvOSefXYuW32C5oxFEMHVDTPMsMBY5L4He2A7cJ4Ym8I54fzwz9sXoBKxxDFfe5c/GiHHvnXshWJ0L98X982x5jtwDz5JoqNQ8XDp06GDnM+A+2dfLFOrSIfYDVj5xS4iix0QJPHjcL/lV2XlQTKRAqFjcL8QNx6VD4iJqINt5cDwgqji4h0iMJCw31Gt+8NBd9wcvMNQXxIWEybPMa3uwl0zexcyZEmkyr1EiArhLtskomffdJ2SfvH7Dwj1RMOe1rbgL6Qc3IWkrt0snKTNFNiftlYNpx+Vg+nE5kHpcDqcnyncHV8t9C56VE+aaLqx4juxLPSqHzHa7X+oxey/lo+OtOCBoGCxEtSSjk+6Z6Yl4JqRhdx5bxAzBQUyIPonbk2vDeEEUAHclYk8+onAgwiWiRAFBXPuPPvrIhiSmJoHgITiIJcK2YMECKyycD/HknAgd8YPqOpPVYG2yP/mRvDRx4kQb2ZI8h6gRKZMCgd9yDeQxjC/yHB0vyNs8Q+6B6+Y8CCIFDNfLNkSX37vz7SLICCl5+o9//KM9H/tz/5yX8yDiFEDoBc+IAgRR5pic240pwz7Uqjg2+/BOef48x3r16tn7451jJOJhINLnhAkT7LPiPjgm67l/ng3XzsJ7pPB56aWXbDokrDXaQYRTppskv/FcuW+eG+ci/DTPgGvj/LwbCkD2Q6+4bmof6A8aSKGEVpHWiXbKNTHnQF5xb9iH58Bvc6fngha3MCo1lw7w0kl8TJf2/vvv289YJPnBzfFwsSJIHLw0HgY3ADxM9uElu8dhfxJ5foWICy/P3S9cFhJNXuu9sGBPRZLozPtyiTAJ124P0nXzvPKr5f1w5Gd5YOnL8sCKYfLA8jdk8Mrh0t98v+2Hf5uEXFHe2fylXLPob/KQWc92loFL/iOjts+yv+eoCIC7kPYRMSxTMivnxhJHFKidIuxY5PwlzHC3bt2seLiQ5okpf+utt1rxo9MDx+Q+gLRMfuA7E6cwsxbHuv322+3EJ+QdjAKOzXZCNud0jyD+/J7r4noIjYyoUxgRVpk8hgDylzYzRJCQzAgbBQ/3xDUgbORBjLBbbrlF7rjjDitcffv2tYUUhYMLRhsFItYxfnmeDQUHBh7vhWPyuXXr1rYw4PkQTplnQCFBYeDCtXIsroH9EHHO1759e3uNCD3Xy3VznxSInAs3MLH92c7zocaByPNsORb7INTcA/vx7HgObgHHdJSEvb7sssuspU8hw73UYXIhAwUlz4TzMP0j58Uo5Z4IUY0B7IJRwLWRXgpyLeVMw0VZAkmhgs/DI8EOGjRIBg8ebK0SrIjnn3/evqC84IVTxSHhkDhIiCQArBUKjDGm6stxqArxEjge1ggP0h9IVLqU0sLz7t1bTG71PXx45hmJcEQ3mEtedKt+oczt/qLM7fqcWf4pc7r8Q8a1/Z3ERpiiK9Jknsw0GdrwGplt1rOdZd5lL8sTjW+yv083BRvpnbSIGCCkiDYigZAzCcptt91mrdGZpuaD5etabeQHDJmccJ3uOtfCQ9RYwPX5s559OYZrzXFMzg/uMbD4uBYX8hF5DbHDUuaasXQxtrBIsYgRPKZsRKA5BwIFfKYgQIQfeOABe15XYDiPG8HVLZBcEEWuH2MO0aTWg+hToLGe/blX1zrlPOgIcBz3nlwoPLG8KWQQVNr83N+6x3GNRXBrxeD+dQs9CjwKx4EDB9rvPFfgnrkG9sv5jqiZsY1nx+9cuOac5wSOxbXk1D32IQ24bZO4x/KDY57JEkgKFXxuCKuEKd6Y65MXi9vlwQcftCVaQfCAKa3JJDx8Eh7iT8mNb58ExXEoWen9QwGgeBAyjalGm4Tg8+PnU9B7gUg3ozj/oFH52vJjz9dk3RXDZd3V78s99Xva9b/sFWF/B64gA5kbgUBUsSRx8WDpYqQgjogRNVf+ck7cCzl99cDxcIl88skn1vrD8OFY+IZxe+KaIh+5ggg5xZHfI/BYwsyfi0uBAskF1wrn5BhY57h6uD5EEQMLK55pCvGrcyxEmWNg1ZKPydvUWFyfPvtwz9yPK/L8zX19CCs+b47B82JdzgKC68CVhCuEY+Y8Vk7BR+BZx3OlNoMYc7/u/hzX/cw1cU/cw+jRo217CYUY9816ahM8J86Lxc7vOLf7W7TMrSmMHz/e9hhkPe4g7j+n4HM8XG20d+DOYx8KOo6R8/qpRXAcJobBcPW6hhUaDx9fI9Y8iZjZeGi45eaDBS4gSlQ3EYQ6ZEwyjJtZPI8p9OWVV0RwK+TzDkhSWE05LdFAU1Lx8Km68y4QEYQcC5zMjxAhStwbgsM+CCXfsZIRe8QA0UIMSaOAKHGNWNF0fHB9+wgS7x43C4UH52EbAoSFyzlZx3eOiUDj2kC4XbcDUCgh2lwvjZeAHx7xY2pG7gcxQ4ARMMDdw/VjVePioCCi9sJ1sz9uEK4NFw+fKZTAbRgFdIGFe3cbcNmXzxybAohjcxyul79Y8twb18riwn1yTRh++MZd9y7Pjf3dz1wbzwV4Fwgv+1PAcWzEHbHneDxr0of7G/IYljnPj7/49Hn23DcFJoXXfffdZ4+dE/bjHVNQQ17XTzsEBS/Hy08beU/kCa6zKHAvpD2ebSDwawIU15Kh9wEWPqUaLx+XjVuClhYq+EHGZHJjCom8/LKY+ryz8nRIUqEq+IFm2rRpVgiwZM8UxB5/MgZXYSDCNDZSmw6ZNBVkPvvsM9veQUFeUoSU4AMnxaIh8VFFxBp57LHHTivpSgMVfA/w97/7umbOnOmsOB0V/MDDM8XaL4zcLgelcPx9tsUhZASf6g8+Kqx7JkXGn4m1QlUuGKjgewB6VuHLN5aRtG/vrPwFFXxFOZ2QEXwulIYRMpfb9xfoWoVbp7CG20Cjgu8RHnzQ594ZP95Z8QulJfikg0D1T1aUkgS3OPk8ZFw6dPXCysdvTxdKGoroYVPaQqWC7xF+/FGkVy/iZ9A30FnpozQE3+1PrRa+khPSXkm7Z84EBB/3d8gIPjCij/6+tObTKFTa/ntQwfcQ11/vm/j8+eedFT5KQ/DJQJyjtPzVZDrOFS7+cXz93FNJvqPShnSHC9qreQlvSFHTT6kLPqP6GGRC1Zld6Q5Fazb+fEavqUuneIS04H/7rQhd2YwRIE53QygNwS9twrExlHdU2r3sShp6EIZkXsqHUhd8d4gxAktVCYHHr09CYRBDaQuvCr6HIOkQTO2uu06LmR+Ogq8Wvvch3SH44eTmC6pLxwuo4HuMsWNF/vMfYuCeGoilgu99VPBDg0ALvt+plxPnjCGhKJY77sChLjJ5srNCURSv4rfgE0uHGByKchr4gO++W+Sll5wViqJ4Fb8FnzgcxPYmbjdDkemaSbVdUWyf/C1bmO7IWaEoihfxW/AZYUtESwZb4cekS6YX+7sqQeCss3xdNF97zVmhKIoX8VvwiayHlU+0ObpjMpF5uDScKgHgd78TmTuXEVFiLAFnpaIoXsJvwWf6MiZ8II43IUIZhEWXTUWxNG7si6/z6qu+7yr6iuI5/BZ8hrITnpUJTeiLT1chuhMqyikee0xk0iSChjNzhbNSURSv4Lfg48KhoZZJf5nblj6vhFhQlFN07+6LqzNmjFr4iuJBijTwiplxiJyJhU+I5GA02urAK49DyOTBgyVzyBCJuv12EWemoFBHB155Hx14VTh+p14GXS1YsODUdGsIv6L8itWricchUX/7m8/i37jR2aAoSrDxW/Bx52BdMzs77h0mVHbnulQUi7FE5KOPnC+GQ4do7Xe+KIoSbPwWfIKlMUkyfnsmSGZClCJ4g5SyAG62nj2dLwaTRuz8t4qieIKoZw3O5wLBmp8wYYKd3f27776zk5rzGZ8ZM8SXFkzSjL87XHypFJr48cMiTC1tOl27isTHS9bevRLBpNsPPOBsDG3wedNmFS6DDUl33FO4jaUJt6B9zPvAewrUzG5+N9oi7MePHz/VeIVA4devUKGCtfZLC2209T4kqPTZsyV2yBCR778XKeIsP15EG229D1KmjbYF43fqRZBw59SrV8/ObetOaF6aYq+EEJde6hP6Tz91ViiKEmzCw1xRvAWVRlxU/fqJjB7trFQUJdj4Jfh0wXzvvfdst0wX/PhUNxQlTxB9BJ/YOsuWOSsVRQkmhQo+ok5jLY1Vy5cvl3feecdOcbhr1y77V1HyhC6a1auL9Ogh8tZbzkpFUYJJoYJPgLQ6derIvffeK4888oiNmvn222/bAGrhNgGyEkDcvgDEyp85k25evu+KogSNQgWfhlpCKSQmJtrvvXr1krZt29owC4W18FM7yO324Ti51x0+fNh2P1LCkM6dRWrWFPnkE2eFoijBwu9umQgyVj3d0ugWSbcuyK+b2tq1a+Wbb76xXTm7du1ql5UrV9oRu/y2e/fu0qlTJzt14po1a6zLqG/fvrYGURDaLdP7kKRO6w89fLjIuHEi8+b5vocg2i3T+2i3zMLxK/WuXr1aXnzxRfnggw/k/fffl//85z+yZ8+eAhN/TWPV/eY3v5GbbrpJpk+fbv39s2bNkv79+1v3EI2+FAqI/aOPPipt2rSR//73v86vlbDCFOSye7fIkiXOCkVRgkGhFj4jWxH4a6+91rpysAzmzp1rJ0RBqAuyELDo5xmrrkmTJqZm31lGjRolQ4cOtSXx66+/bq15Pt9888023v44YwU+/fTTBY5mxMKn779a+N6Fd3qahY9hYAr5CPPOst99F/PStz6EUAvf+5DuwtHC510FysIvVPA3b95sxf12Qt3mgG6al19+uR18lRckpm+//VY2bdpkBbpbt2528vOHH37Yvpg33nhDatWqZefG7dOnjw3VQA3iySefLDBTUbPghYaL4PMyEUfaScIF3i8FWbQ7CYr5G7V4scTefbck49ZhsF7Byc5zcD8YIuEi+L96R2EA94TxhKaECxjcdI4pNcE/dOiQFfeBAweeOim+/BEjRsigQYPyHWnLYV1L/bnnnpMbbrjB+usff/xx2x6A4Ldv315WrFhhXT/UBvD5/465UQsAC59RvuFkaZFIAxUrwytQiP2qFxdxdozom4TjrAgdEEfSXEG1z1CC/IlRFm497bDww6m2TCcX8lKpCT5gqSPG+OXZnT74WPdXXXWVs8evwV+/c+dOm1Gwxu+44w4bUnnv3r32e6NGjeSyyy6T4cOH24nR6f559dVXS8uWLZ0j5I022nof0shpLh0X+uMb40EWLXJWhA7q0vE+pDtttC0YvwSfXfCx79ixwyYUumo2bdq0wMTPhTJCFwuCeXDdfVetWmXXXXDBBfY7AdiYUIW+/sTpKQwVfO+Tr+DTF791a5GxY33dNUMIFXzvo4JfOIUKPr1rxo8fL7fccotUrlzZrsPNM2nSJFM7v7vUq4Qq+N4nX8GHhx6ij6/IqFHOitBABd/7qOAXTqGpFxcMDTuu2EN1hswbcMMoSpHAfz9nDg1BzgpFUUqLQgW/UqVKsn///tPE3f1OLHxFKRJt2oicfbZG0VSUIOCXD3/27Nl2oNS5555rv+Ob79mzp11KG3XpeJ8CXTqAO+fNN33z3YZIrxd16XgfdekUjl+CDwgtQo97h773NLIGAxV871Oo4OPOadvWZ+V36eKs9DYq+N5HBb9w/E69zF+LG4cTI/ZTp06V559/3q5XlCJRpYpI794ib7/trFAUpTQosuAz6nbGjBn2My6d75mzVFGKyuDBIgsXauOtopQifgs+w5VbtWplB0ytW7fOdtek3zzVDUUpMgywIzIqI29HjGBorrNBUZSSwm/B79Kliw1/wMAp/M34AMeOHXuqIVdRisSGDWIsB5EvvxQZMkTkz392NiiKUlL43WibF0xckl8snZJCG229T6GNtoBVj9C7tG8vsnix88V7aKOt99FG28LxO/XyMHOXDaUt9koYQWiFnIVciPTWUZRQxm/B32Cq4ExgDkTLfPPNN21pqihnBD78L77wWfm9evncO2de2VQUxQ/8dukQ5Ax3SoMGDex34tefffbZpe5aUZeO9yFJFerSyU2HDiIM5Hv+eWeFt1CXjvch3alLp2D8Tr08SFw4xLJnohIuJFxEV/EAzHk7cqTI1187KxRFCTR+Cz4x8YmhwyTkzMIyZ84cGzVTUQJCkyYir74qMnAgUfmclYqiBBK/BZ/pCJmikPAKgwcPtoHTcEUoSsDo31+ke3eRAQOcFYqiBBK/ffjstnbtWmnYsKH1NzObFT780p7yTX343ueMfPguJ074umgSRvl//sdZGXzUh+991IdfOH6nXhIIYvvll1/aCVEQfy5EUQJKxYoiY8aI/P3vIsuWOSsVRQkEfgs+E5CvWbPGjqwlvAIunnCZ0FnxGPTYeeopkX796C3grFQUpbj4LfiERSaWTseOHe1y0UUX2XWKUiL84Q8i9euL/OY3zgpFUYqL34LPxOWERH733Xdl5MiRMmHCBG20VUoW4uVPm+brsqkoSrHxu9GW6JgI/PHjx+3E5XFxcXae29JuxNJGW+9TrEbb3Bgjw3bVnDtXpHFjZ2Xpo4223kcbbQvH79SLwE6fPt1a9izHjh0Lm8SveJhrrvEJ/hVX+Lps4tvXmqWinBF+K/asWbNsaXPnnXfaiU/orcN3RSlxmCGLmdXmzPGFXhg71tmgKEpR8Fvwjxw5Yhtt69atKy1atLAToqjgK6XCqlXOBwfcO4qiFBm/BZ+eOUxtSB/8N954w66rWbOm/asoJco99zDlmu/zWWf5pkZ84gnfIC1FUfymSBOgJCYmyk8//WSt+5aEtw0C2mjrfQLaaOuyYoXIpk0irVsTulXkkUdE9u8Xee45kRtucHYqObTR1vtoo23hFCr4CCwTmNMjhwnMExIS7AUg+r179y71BLNv/z5Ts6ghEf5XTjxNtmRZwY+PS3DWhAcZmekSHRXjfCshxrwv8te/ilx0kcjLL4vU94XuLgmysjMlMoI0Fy6DDbPNO8oo+XdUyiSnnJSE+PAxnpJOJkpaanrpCT6++z179kj16tVtOAUsa7plulZ+aQ++2rt3n1SrWk0tfA9Dkgq4hZ+bKCO+aO+OXT73DtMjPvmkyE03+Vw+cXG+Xj0mrRpz1vebYqAWvvch3YWThR9h/p04cdyYhFmlJ/guzHKFKJFAJk2aJE2bNpULLrjA2Zo3Bw8etAkrp6+fdSQ0BnK57Nixw9YgKlWq5KzJn5XfbpGpr6+U2LhoCYfIDtn8y8oOqy6uJCiSVWRpvCB8+4j6vHnGHEoUadxEZMN6UyAYQ6RNG5FypuaUWXzBt9nE3A6ZMBwo1XdUSnBP6E1UGOWl5KRUuf3Pl0rjNnWcNcXDb8Gn733btm1tPB3i4mPB9e3b11r+ebF8+XKZP3++jZ1Pr55rr73W5Ml51i1EDJ7mzZvLVVddZY9LXH1KZvZp1qyZc4S82bFlj2QmRpmaRXhY+CRQJpWhxhQukKAyMtIlJrqU3AWIFjUkkzZNIvJZ9yRrLPuvporUPdvZ8cyhJhaBhR8mApllnk9mZkbpvaNSgHTHANGEMMpLiYlJUq1eealZJ2+dLSp+C/6CBQusYOPDHzp0qIwePVquvPJK200zL2hsQMRwB40aNUp+97vf2TlxBw4caN0xw4YNs20ATKzCtkWLFtlJVZ6gel4A+w/sk5o1ajnfwoOMrDSJjgyfqrUPrOpStrQO7BZp1MgkvhTf92aNRX5cbaz98BGAwBKEd1TCpGemSkyUKfDDhNSMZGPlp0iVyoFx6UQ9a3A+F8g555xjJz3p0aOHDauAm6ZOnTrWWs8L9kHYN2/ebMMxYOVTO+jWrZt1C61YscK6dpg2EaseC2rlypXSuXPnfI8JlHgUJOESqdP68FPSbLtIuIANkZaWXvrtLOUriTQxNcQDB0TOP1/kldd8Dbn+2TQFQlqFcEl31CzT0zPCpi0MSHcpyUbwwygvnUxKNu8q2xragcBvC3/dunW2OySNtCNGjLDuHSz8gsDv/9Zbb0m/fv2kYsWKMmbMGFs74JRY+BQYHO/GG2+0PYGYK/epp54q0J+9d+9e6+8Pl4RKxnMbbf18FZ6H+0Agg5LxcjdCpqU5H4oHBTPpMlwEP6jvqITgnqxLJ0DiGGxIa3hK+FvqjbYff/yxtcSXLFliG2yZ6rBXr175unTo3cMgLWoEF154oe3D/9prr8nvf/9767N+++23pUuXLtbPj0tn8eLF1q3z6KOPOkfIG+2H731IUiXeS6eUQRy1l463Id1pP/yC8Tv1Ev+e+DkIU9euXa1ljtsmP/DNUyugkRZ/PwmrQ4cO8vLLL9vwyu3atZM2bdpYa52CgPaBawiUpSiKopQIflv4gNVepUoVW5LSvbKg0Ar47YmoiTWPVVS/fn1rlW/cuNFWIxs08A2SwdLAt8/8uPjzC0MtfO+jFr73UQs/NCj1kba7du2y7htElp46CC0XwHe6URZk5ZcEKvjeRwXf+6jghwalLviIEQ8RQUpOTrYPlQXBZaBUaTdiqeB7H9KHCr63UcEPDUrdh48Fz8lIIEyAQq+b4cOH20Zc3DWKoihKaOC3uTJ58mTb0+b222+3k6AwaCqcunQpiqKEO34L/rnnnmv7zdOrBoufv+HSJ1kJH9LWz5FjI/rL8VEPSsaOXBOnKEoZx2/BpwfNzJkzZdy4cTJ27Fj54osv1KWjeIqsY/sk6ZOnJWPjfElbPU0SP/uzZKckOlsVRfFb8BkYRa8cRsoyOKp///6l3kNHUQoi6+RRsxyRiPgKZqkk2eZ7doYaJYri4rfgE92S/vLLli2zcXCY+YoeJoriFaJqNJTYFr0kK/mESHqKSd1Rvr+Kolj8FnzXd8/AKcR++/bttueOoniFiOhYqdD3Ban0wCip+OD7Etf2Jsk8tsfZqihKof3w6QNKTHsEPyeMpKW/a2n3h9d++N5H++F7H+2HHxqUej98QijQWAtz5861I2+BuDpEw1SUUCB9yw/agKuUeQoVfCwB13Wzc+dOG34U6JJZSOVAUTxD2oopcnz0EMnOSHXWKErZo1DBZ7KRH3/80Ua0XLp0qR1h++qrr1pffjhNy6eEN+Wue1Ii4srLifcftr13FKUsUqgPn80bNmywPnsEHn8SC1EzGzdurLF0ion68EuP7Ix0SfryOYlvf6tEn93cWesf6sP3PqQ79eEXTJHCI3sBFXzv41XBz012eopkJx6SyCp1TE4oWMhV8L2PCn7hhEfqVZQikrlnvRx78045+tJ1cmLMI5KVfNzZoijhiwq+UiZJnjdaMrb8YEzdDEldPllSfvjU2ZI3EdHRphKg2UUJbTQFK2UU2p4cb2Z2lmQnHvZ9NmQlHZXM/Zvsepf0n+ZI6sqvrBtIUUIV9eEHGfXhB4eMfRsl8ZOnJevAJolu0kUq3PJ3iUyoZLelbZwvSZ//TSIrnSXR9VpJdmqSpP4wQbLTUiS2ZS+peOdLEhEX2u9LffihgTbaquB7nlAQfMhOT5Wso7ttDJ7cZJ04KJl710vaT99JyoIPJCKKuR+ybZ2gytD/SlTtpna/UEUFPzTQRltFCRARMXF5ij1EVjxLYpp0lvLXPyPR57aRrKTDvl49xtrPMIWEooQiKviKUggVbn5WYi+6xhYACT2HyMkvX5CU7z+2Db6KEkqoSyfIqEsnNEDasY5Y0jctkqTJz0n5G/8sMQ3asDnkUJdOaKAuHUUJBplZuPAtMY06SeWHP5Tous18KxQlRFDBVxR/oItmjm6aEbHl7ALMnZu6cor9rCheRgVfUYpLRKScnPaSJH31omTs3ySpyz6XjN0/ORsVxTuo4CtKMYmu10IqPTROMratkGOv3yKJHz4ux0fcJWkbFzh7KIo3UMFXlAAQVbm2xF18nUjiIYlIqCzZyccl+ZsRkr51qWQdP+DsVXSyM9Mlacq/5NirN0nixL/YsQP5kXlou5wYO9QUOrdK8oIPTnNB5YYwERFh1GCr+If20gky2ksnNKCnRGHRMlNXTpUTo4cYMY2y7buxF15pXnCaZB3bJ5HVzpFyVw61tQGgIEie8bpkpadIuZ4PSWyzHnY9ZKedlKzEw5KdckLSfpxh3UURMeZZZphn2vp6iTqrgS0IIuIrSPwld0lkuSo8dDk+7reStvgTux43U+XfTJDocy5yjno6aVuWSMryKRJT41yJv7SfM7AsACAnpRwy3UV76RRO1LMG53OJgEDzAty4+Zs3b5b9+/db0XZZvXq1Fb6KFSs6a/KH+XURx3AJU0si5d5jYgKU4TwC3f7CpVAG7oc0XND8D9E1GkpEucomV8VIXMteUv6mZ23s/ZhGHa0IR1WvL5Hlq9pZt06M/Y2kb1wo2cf2mL8LTOFwhd0GKXNGGav+Bcnc85NkbFtmhP+4RMQZEbcWe7apQZh8kpJoCoZkiTm3tTk2+SZbUua+L9knDtpzMUAs9qLr7DkhaforkjrvPcnYu0Eyd6yWkxx/3beStmamEftYiWncye5XHFLXzJCkCU/aYHScN6pqXWdL6RFuhkZamjEYTNpLSEhw1hSPErPwDxw4IBMnTrSC//TTT9vMP2PGDFmzZo3NNI0aNZLevXvLuHHjJDk52c6Pe+WVV0qbNgX3a1YL3/uUVQvfXxDjI/++WrITjThHRRsdz5TKjxhr3LH+sxIP2X2iTK2AIG7HRz0oWQe3SETVelLp3hGn9stNypLPJOmzPxnlTZTopl2lYr9XJLJCdbuNnkQZu9dJ1pGddhxBxtZltnDKTkkytY96UuGOf9vC40zJPLZXjr12s6nN7DFfMuzo5MqPfGRqJoERKn9QC79wSszCR8ARscOHD0u7du3sXLiTJ0+WoUOH2u+TJk2yM2hh8T/88MN23+nTp0vXrl2dI+SNWvihQVm08P0lIjpWspOOSMbm741JmiJxHW6T+A59rRvGbo816ZuagjlXZIVqtrYQXf9iKX/5wwXG8Imue4HENu1s3UPlzL7W1eMQWbmWKSguNJb8JRJ7fldJWznV1i4iomPMsVtJ+o8zJHXJf82OUfY4ucnOyjCXc3qe4x7Styy2x+Ke0pZNsq6hiNgE65JK3zhfso7vk5jzOji/+IWUheMleeE482AzJbpWY2dt8VELv2BK1IeP5Tpy5EgZMmSILQDGjx9vBZ9TDhs2TOrUqWOF7oYbbpBt27ZZa//JJ58sUMz37t0r1apVCysLn5dKIVaCr6JU4T6wSsKpEOM9IfYBMzSMeKZvWmgUKtWGbBBj6ZsH52w8nQiT1t1gztkMAHNHgOWGAinH9WWba84Ljpe+bYUkr5giMTXPk/j2t9k4QWmrp9kjx7e9yV6fpCVK1t4N1sWUeXS3xF96t8S2udEUCpGSMm+MWUaLlK8uMQ3bS8Jlg+TklOclbfEEW2jEdX/QFi7WtXThFfY3WUf3SsrXr9gG7fSfvpHstCTrjqpw/yjzDMy+9gYZ75DP/RUC6Q5vQbjUlklvTC3LfYXESFuEDFyrKLegkXlyrsu9XQldwu1dlsT9xDa5VGKbX2ZMc2ORFnB8hDvLLD4BL+A6zDHYx13yg21R514s8dc/IwmX3GkLG9sA3OFWSTCLS8bONXJi9MOStmqa9fsnffZnydi11m7Daq9w10tSech4KX/dHySifGUbaqLyo5/ZpVzvx01NoovEtepl9+eycSHFtu4jmYe22hWRlWoZ8T9hjrnGurUo/GzvIYw5tzZBYecsp9YpZ0yJPkGqIlh6WEeUupRWLLh5WHfeeefJ+vXr7b5Y+FjuhVlQFB7R0dHWwg+XhXtmyWubLmG6RJragknPLFHGHspznxJcIk3ejMxI/+X8Zjl1Pexjri+uYTtfGwAi7DQER6SesPvE1G0msfUvMmVFtO83LLHxEmPWxdRrYX5v0nSu40XHlZO4pl1MbeAhyc7w9V6KwGVlCoasrcsk8a275OSnz0jmuu8kKiPFd53mnOkrp0jGhnn2GO71572YawmjfOTeSyApMR/+9u3bbaMtjbe7d++Wli1b2huYNm2abbjt2LGj9eVv3bpVFi5cKHv27LGunUqVfJNQ5If68EMD9eF7G9Jdoe/I5DH2S/95gUhKkqmN9JT4S/tLREy8s8OZEV2nmUTVaiLRtc+30UdpLI6sWEMiazSUrKN7JHX5F2Z7Uxuimt5MyTOGmXWTsPZsj6f84NVkmNpSTHi8IkvI+PDx32PNx8XF2YYUfFCINAUAFnpOn9SuXbukevXqthG3MLSXjvexIqG9dDyNW/v25x0RJiI7+Zjt00+DbGmRvuUHOT7CKWAIRR1bTspd/XuJa9PnVByjnKSZWkLy7g1S8YKuEln1bGdtaKMzXqngex4VfO9TFMEPFowcPjasr2Sf2G/TVHSd8yXm/G6ScKoHUrYkzx5ldky3tZHkWcMlK/GgRNVtLpUGvitR1er5DhTCaHhkRVHKBAzeqnDbcxLdoK3EteotFe99S8r3eTpHd9MIiaxcWzKP7ZPk70aaUjlVIivVlMzda+2ANeXXqIUfZNTCDw3Uwvc2jExOnv6KRMQliMQkSIVb/ylpP31rC4eY5j1t19HSdEcFCrXwFUVRcpHQ8yGJ7zlYIs67xNQCnpHYVldLfOcBppoQLSen/ltSfvjU2VMkffNiOTb8LhtkLnXNTGdt2UAt/CCjFn5ooBZ+aJCUkirl4+Ocbz7oAoq7h0FeBKY79sbtkrFjpURERElE1bOlytBPrWvIi6iFryiKkgfWcjUFWW4I++ALMGf2SUu2sYoiYstLREIlyTq0XTIPMBCsbKCCryhKeICzooA5AMDGJmp/qykYMq21H9fpDhtjyGJ+m5V8zPc5TFGXTpBRl05ooC4d70O68zdaZvqWpSbzpfkGcjkhG4jxc+KjP9jBdXGX3CWxTbtK5sGtkr51mY1QSrfQ0kb74avgex4VfO9T1gU/PzIP77RRQ9MI71Crie3embnvZxtiouJ9IyWmQQHh223tIsL8F7ihvurDV5RC2J96TI6ln3S+KYr/MFir3FW/lcpDPrTtAVl7N0pk+Wp29rGkT5+Rk1+/JimLPrTtADlJWz9Xjr15p1lut91BvYoKvhJWZJt/N3z/nDy0crizRlGKDuEcGNWbbaz27NRE6/OPPqeVDTGRtmaWZB3f7+zpm3iGqKIZW5dK+qbFkvT5XyQ76bCz1Vuo4CthxZS9S2XR/qUyYedcmbZ/uWQV0oinKPkR1+pqKdfnaYmqfb7EX/6IlL/tn1L+hv+TSgPfOW2SmCji9kRE2EIiMr68ZJ08JllpyXZbdqq3aprqww8y6sMPHJlG3Nt993tZsWehyYVxIrEV5JLqLaRrtfPl5rM7S4eqTe1EImdCZkamRBDSWH34niUQPvy8QSILTjlJU/4lKbNH2s9xXe6VCn2esp8TP/uzZB3d7ZtprHlPiapxnqQumSjp25ZKTMMOEte6T4E+f220VcH3PMEU/L+v/0Q2Ju003yKkc7ULpGG52vLetq/lx+PbJDYyWnrXbi/X1Wonl1a/QFKy0uWbA6vkmlptfQcoiMLzfEihgh9gzLkzdvsmh4k+2+nmaSAAXPrPCyVt9XSJqnOBqRk0kxPjHjMvIEOYGazSA+9JbLPuzt6/RgVfBd/zBEvwC+JwWqJ8vX+Z/HfPIllzbJvUjq8qFWMS5Iud82V8x6dM4dBMKseUN0ve7+HfGydK84r15FpTYIQDKvhBICtTTnz6jKR9/5FEVKgu2SePSnSDdlLu6v+x7QN5xfo5kZwqGZlZUrWCx+PhlxQq+N7Hi4KfkxMZyTJq20x5bOWb5mLNiqg4OadcDakZV1nOiq0oVaLLS3xUjMRHxkrdhGpSI7ayPLziDWlaqb4s6/6SlI8+feh+KKKCHxxo8D0x5mFh8nqpeJbENr9cMnettf3+E8ySmxN7t0p60jGp1ugiZ03xUMEPMir4wWHCrvly+4JnjdjHmFwQJV9e+qzUMoJPl06WHckH7XI0PUk+3b1QsjOSzH6R0qzSedKp2vnStnJDaW/+tq/SWCJDcK7V7KxsiciKEIl2VoQBoSD4kLZ2lqRvXCAxzXpI7Pld7Yhf4v24YZ9TV06VjG3LJbJqXUmZ/4GN8R/X+nopf+OfTFIt3sx4KvhBRgU/OOxMPiTrT2y3Io5gd6t+oUTlI9yd5vyvrD+2mRuTrjXbGMFvKnMPrJLdacclxvymbnw16X5WS+sW2pNyRN7cMlW+6PRHSYgq+P4ZK5CenWFqFQVP60lX0yn7lkpvc+78rtFl2dHN5n4i5GJTIBUEgr/hxG45v3J4zAwFoSL4hZG5f5OkLBwvKYs+Mt+YWjNastKTpfKg0RLTpLNvpzNEBT/IqOB7n+MZJyUlLVUiIyOkSlxFiTY1Anf9iqNbZNGR9bLk6CZZawqQjUl7JS31qFx9dlepl3CW1I6rIi0q1ZcG5WpJ+ag4WwjQTlAlprzcueQlW4tY1O0Fe7zkzDRJzkqTFPM3JTNdMkxhkGme5fdHNsh9i/4uz7V+RHrVbG0bp/MCF1TfJf+WpIxUmdzpGXOdkbahOsYIBi6qBM4fGSMxZt23B1dLX1PD+bzLP2xBFSieXjtW+p/TQ5pXPMdZkzf2Xs1SLbaCs6b4hIvguxx/e4CkrftWIuMqmAI6UyoNGlPgnL7+oIIfZFTwQwQ0thDPzYc758pd8/9oclW0eQiZclPD3kaEY2zBkJiRYv8eN5YaIozgI+RZWelymRFxxgskmX3oOYToQzkj0HQMWn18uzlcijl/tHSt3jLfNoT1ibtkC7UWk6NrlKtpCpzqkpSZKqmm8IhD8E2BEG8KnCqmwFmfuFu2HtkorU2t4dpabaw7iwKqgfnduQk1pFx0vMSZ88E722bKpD3f20LEJT0rQ1LNcjjthOxMOSQHUo+b69wq/7fiDelZr4fcf25PU9BEGUGvaGswLBR0sebZcC0PrRwhs02hs6bn64F1iaWam48Lj+5U6ZsWSeLnf5Gs4wclofPdknDFI6ZCWjzdU8EPMir4oQENnIXF0vnciOLwnz+XCCPUcWYZ3eZRK+wutAccSD0mJ4yw37PsVVmzZ5HtmletciOZ2PFJK4bR5jsWOTWBCkZ0FxxeJ7ct/Kv5tRExY/F/3e1FubJm3g14Vyz4s8zaOcfsGiGda3eUSR2ftg3UFCRpRpzTbI0hS6bsXSL/XP6aiBFjMdvb1b3U1ESqyjFqMsbqZl/cSNQELjSW+qwDq2WXKUjubXSdHEw9YWslQPdx80RMwRAjmaZEXGz2s6WNKWDOq9ZEGibUtAVYhrFO0815M80/9o8x97j86GaTRhKlX4Ne0rryebZwqxSTINViKkrt+CpSJ66a7UUVZ57FAPOscFH9oclN9rz5gYvs272r5MZzOjlrQp/Ew/sl/fghqdrgl4FexUEFP8io4IcG/gh+UaAh+CfaBYyQ1y9fRwbUv8y3IReIGJZwphFSznxp9eZSIx+f/8LD62W3sbbhXGOpt6vS2H7OzbaTB2T0thmmdiESFR0lvz2vjxFbX/qjUDporPW9qUdllznW61umyvwds0VM4SPR5eTfLQfaWkAN26Opkq0tINI7Uw7KNQv/JimmAMk2hcYfLxwgDxkxp4BJNOso5JJMLYW/Q1ePlEUc0wi6RMTIoMY32trPdlOQUEDRLhJlagfUhHg+8/cvlyqmttLXFEzRZh3nrRtf1dRKqkh1U2hR4OAaemPLV/LKT+Nk0RXDpWPVpvZ+8mNPylFT40iwBY2XOXEyWTIys6VqxcDogwp+kFHBDw0CLfihwvAt02T0linGlI+R2gk1ZGKHJ41ln7fL5GRmqvm/kRPzX6zZn9pKXkze+4MsNYWTeZhS09QsHm7Y29kitnaBu4jayPaTB6XXwr/IviM/my1ZUrdaM+lXr5scSjthCyYWCpO07Ez7eWviLrNbhpxXqYF0rNbUinl1Uxg1rVDXFIA1TK2hqtQxBUWGKYQumf2E9KnbQV5pMdB3Yo+iA69U8D2PCr73CZV++I+sfFt2n9xnElWmXFGngzzS8Bpnyy/ghnrh54ny7Mq3TK3B5CMj6I837WtrCJvNb1NMQUQD8QFTUPA30xxro6ldVYivJk81udm63WjvaFO5kW3LwJXlsvLYVpmwa578o3l/Z03+0J03wvyrEVdwr6uioIKvgu95VPC9T7gNvNqdclhWH90iqWlpUqlcBelxVktnyy/QfrIhcbf0mP9/knFyvy0YEiqcLV2rN7diTdtCJG0lpgZTP+Es224wff8KmWME/71L/iQdqjaxbRDlomJtwzO9ouj9hEsJrl74V9teMbPzX+z3gtiUtE8ala/lfMufk4lJNi9Vrurro19cVPCDjAp+aKCCHyKkZolRYOfLr6ExeuTWGZLIQDojzm2rXSDdz7pQ0s1n2hFo31h1fKscTDsusw6skmk0gtteUZHSuOI5tucSPapwWVGD4C8FAH+n7PvBFiK31+suZ5vaA66kRuXrSOXoBNsAXSm6nG1/4bh3ff8PmdLlObmkWsFtDYmJiZKVkSmVqlR21hQPFfwgo4IfGqjgex/SXSD74b+55St5bMUwyY6MkyqxFWT6Jc/atoDUrHTbXnEinYZoX4P0wOXDZM/hn0y5EC1ixH5A/cslMdNsz0g1hctJOZyeZLvHnhVXyRYqe09skzY1WsutdS+xDd+14qtKo3K17HgNemj5GqxFBi1/wzaKP9/iHvu9uKjgBxkV/NBABd/7BFrw6c66M4WJTLLtoLl6CWf5NuTBu9tmytJDvmiZF1drJoMaXGU/Az2V9qUetY3NX+5dIk8vedHUGhLMhlRpXaej7XF0OC1J0rMzbe2BBTdRvXJnyX93zZN4c+61PYdJQz9cQIWhgh9kVPBDAxV87xNowS8JaGsYu32W+eRLRwNNwUDAPqCnEVFd6Q679eR+eezHd+XwcQbSZciDzfrJ2xc/bPcrDkEX/JSUFFmxYoVUq1ZNmjYt2J8FKvjeRwXf+6jge5/f/ThKfti/WrLNu7q0dhv5d4sBzpYzJ6iCj9CNGjXKJrqDBw9Kly5dpHPngoMDqeB7HxV876OCHxpknkyz7ymuUmD0Iaipd8OGDVbwBg4cKH369JHvvvvO2VIw4ZLpIJxExIWBOeF2T+H2njTdhQap2RmSbAe0BYagWviLFy+WzZs3yx133CG7du2ScePGyeOPP16g9Y6FHxcXF1YWPtZwfHy8syb0IUlhlcTEFC92t5cIRwuftBdO74h0h4s4ISEws0MFG+4nOTnZakPlymHQLRPB37Rpk9x5552yfft2K/hPPpn/0G1AHJOSkpxviqIo4QsGRoUKFQJmaARV8Ddu3CiffvqpPPbYYzJnzhzZuXOnde8oiqIogSfovXS++OILK/w0Wt522222QVZRFEUJPEEXfCBAENWWglw5iqIoSvHwhOAriqIoJU949WFSFEVR8kUFX1EUpYyggq8oilJG8Jzg08eevvlpab6Z+4HBB/TkoQ++C6EYGLTlwj4MytqzZ4/97CUOHDgg27Ztc7754Pq3bNnifPNBiAXiX7vQvMKzoFHbSzBoh3ET+/fvd9b44B5zr+Pa3XfJQJ9Dhw7Zd3T4MFEIvQPPnmedc4wHg61+/vlnO1zfZe/evbb7cE64H56H1zh69KjNI7wvl2PHjtn7dOGdbN269bT3wTvjPslPOfOcF9i9e7cdpJmT3OvIQ+gFg7BceL+8y5y64gV4vugA7yonvDfelQsaklMv+B3rSHvHjx931haOpxptuelPPvnEJj567Dz88MP2xoi3w+haLnXw4ME2wU6ePNmuq1u3ru3O+eabb9oHQG+fa6+9Vpo1a+YcNbisX79evvrqKyskZ599ttx7772yevVqu47rP+ecc+Tmm2+2iXHkyJHSokULufvuu21iHT16tL1/BKdfv372915g9uzZ8sMPP9iEds0110inTp3ks88+s0LIdV9++eVy8cUXy7x58+z6QYMGyYUXXmgH2vF+a9asKU2aNJEbb7zROWJw4Rl//PHHVjj4zPUysvHtt9+22xGL++67z2au6dOnW0Fs1aqV3HTTTTJ//nxZsGCBHRjTsmVLueqqX8LiBhMEkDEupJ1KlSrJQw89JDt27JCPPvrIdoFm3T333CPTpk2TtWvX2nd566232vv617/+ZQsCYtIwKLJGjRrOUYPL999/b8frkJc6dOhg094333wjy5cvt4VamzZt5LLLLpMPP/zQagn7PfLII/advvvuu3bEKoX4gAEDpEqVwMwgVRzQs4kTJ1o94z2R7xs2bGj1DqOVgovnT1SBKVOm2PshyCQawu/IX7Vq1ZJ27dpJz549naMWTNSzBudz0EHkL7jgAnvxvNjq1atbweTl8DBWrlxpH8yyZcukd+/eVti5cUST/e666y65+uqrPdWXH1G/5JJL5NJLL7Uv7aKLLpIJEybYzMU9kDjPP/98a3nwQkmcbdu2tYkbAR06dKh98T/++KP9rRfgvZCxSHy8E57/119/bcNi1K5dW2bMmCGtW7e2FgriSKHMwj3wGwTVKwWyCxmNggprlzR25MgRm+kYCIili4AiKAT3a968uUyaNMlmtM8//1wefPBBW+gxUpx1vPNgg0iQjshLs2bNknPPPdfGquI6KagouHiPFFK8S/IeeYg0hoAilNyrlwKRVaxYUXr06GGNB+6JfPPll19aw5CCCi3gnnlPHTt2tIVxo0aNZMmSJfa3CP26detsAd6gQQPnqMEFI453RFqj4GXuWt4Dz58CgXfBO+N+eFcU4qRT7o089MADD9i06y+ecumQUXgxWBckQB4GYle/fn27HUsDSxgLxbV2iZuBe4SEOX78ePtAvOQu4H6ISIh1iFUVHR1tMyMCCJTQXD8WL/fpVr8RmPPOO89+Zj2J1CtwT4BFzH0giMRk4Z1hvWNJ8Z3MR43LrURiNZOAsbYQf6/A+3BjlWDpNm7c2FrDFF5AWuMdke7Yl/vmvXG/3B8GCdtIixQUXoD8wDVxPVwzQkJBRjoDCmnSmPsuceG494v4ULvBQPFSuuMdUZOiUOZaseK5N+4VQwJ94B5xLX7wwQc235F30Iw6derYY1DweUUfSD9uusM7gaAj9uQh4Nq5Vu6DGjUeAGo2PAPe58KFC60XIKdruzA82WhLtR8rihdIgnMFg5fLQ+K7u47vgMuDKir740bwEmQgrokqaO7ATjljZLgFnYu7Lec+XgEfKaLdvXt368bJed3uOwIKMHcbifUPf/iDtVYomBFOL4F7g0IZ6y+n/xfce0BkZs6caa3k3O+FfXI+h2DDs8eF07VrV3tfuDNy5xtYunSpbXvhXcKQIUNsDRSfMVazl8C4oKZCTT43vA8WBJLaC3+xmvmb8369FjAOVyeGLQYSWuHCNaN5gDGMIULBgPFxww032LyElc87zp1e88NTSkICnTp1qk2Y119/vV3HDbsNMrxsqnFYLXwm8SLwWFs8EEp9LBh/b740wOIYM2aMrZZx7bxEXB28OO6Xv26JnhMsFiwToAR3LTEvgIVFVbp///7WisTaIMECNRmef85M5WY27peMSDsFBZ+X3hP+UKx6XIfA8yeNAQ2y9erVs/fIu0RssPoRF94f63FdkW65Py+Ai5AaL9V9XIqAQeE2/OEuJK9QcNMmg1+YPMTvqLVQc6MWkLPhMNggdLS1IHY8Z2pWPHs0gG3oAuLOteMuRRdw5/Du3HdJ2vXKO4JVq1ZZ9y3PH3jm7rXyrnBP805wWRFCnvslj+EpwCDGBYcOkvb8wVONtiTCv/71r6dmvsLi4GVRbUEgqLrReMYMWfggERtEFJ8W/lP83zwQHoxbdQ02WI3UWPDtUnojKAgL67kn2iwQEHzg3BMiSGLFr/ree+/Ze0JYaJ/wSuPZK6+8YqvN+EcRCd6J22gL3A/v8P3337cJmsKKBE2GxJrknqha855yW8nBgLaTZ555xmYu3FH4gNu3b2/dGmQsFq6f98N7o0GabMN9k1kXLVpkhYYaDNa0F6Cd6/XXX7dWI2mqb9++Nv1Rs+J9IIpY8eQ31uPywGCirYkOERha/I7Q5XkZJMFg7NixtoEcg4F0c//991trHz3gHeHfp4CjUMDIQChp9ATciK7bjbzklbaJP/3pT6cMIVy45B0abV1jiGulMKPNgjTGddNJhe/kN1yQpDu3dlYYnhJ8hIAqMyU21gglOD4ut5sYAuMKBN/ZD+EAuvvh78Ly4sV6BcSE6+feeNRubYRSmnVu+wTXz0vm/shsZDJKbUp5Sn0vxcvH6uO+uD6u1W1PobcB1j7WMYmYe2Q7+7GeBIu1zPtxfapegGsl7ZCeuFYEkXvgfXC9uHi4dt4j942Q8J4QSISGffjrtst4Aa6d98S1cn+kJ8SOdMZ6t32I+2Zf0qJbS8bC5F65b+7LKyBubscGnj9piPSF8UH+IG8B98iCNnBP4FrGOTXEC+R8/uQLjDq0j1o96QmB5/3h5SBtug20PAdcouSronRS8ZTgK4qiKCWHp3z4iqIoSsmhgq8oilImEPl/1wmQrFAKVrgAAAAASUVORK5CYII=" /></p> <p style="font-size:9pt">Figure 1 The carbon density of grid electricity in the UK over the last 15 years and future predictions. The trends are compared against the carbon cost of heating with gas and with heat pump systems.</p> <p>Efforts to reduce these up-front costs include using dual purpose buried civil engineering structures as GHE and for structure support.&nbsp; This technique has been successful for foundation piles, but is now being developed for other infrastructure such as metro systems, underground carparks, drainage, water and wastewater infrastructure. One of the challenges with these new types of GHE is that the heat user is not the same as the infrastructure owner meaning there are additional barriers to implementation. Depending on the number and nature of the heat users it may also require adoption of district heating networks (DHN) or other shared infrastructure which adds an additional complexity. This leads to significant non-technical barriers to adoption related to infrastructure ownership, business models for supply of &ldquo;heat as a service&rdquo;, and consumer and stakeholder acceptance.</p> <p>This PhD project will make the first academic study of how infrastructure sourced ground thermal energy can be integrated with adjacent heat users, including via district heating. The project will make use of a range of interdisciplinary methodological approaches including quantitative appraisal off technical systems, as well as qualitative policy assessment to:</p> <ul> <li>determine the number, range and types of users most suitable to different types of infrastructure GHE using DHN models; this will depend on the nature of the underground space and whether there is an embedded heat source such as train breaking.</li> <li>ascertain the nature of the financial and non-technical barriers to implementation of these solutions using a combination of financial and agent based modelling.&nbsp;</li> <li>make recommendations about measure to incentivise change and increase uptake of infrastructure based GHE.</li> </ul> <p>The project will span engineering and environmental disciplines and will include aspects of civil and mechanical engineering, economics, social science, and policy to provide a holistic approach to the problem in the context of both construction industry practices and energy policy and practice.&nbsp;The successful student will work with the <a href="https://environment.leeds.ac.uk/sustainability-research-institute" target="_blank">Sustainability Research Institute </a>and the <a href="https://eps.leeds.ac.uk/civil-engineering-energy-sustainable-buildings" target="_blank">Energy and Sustainable Buildings</a> Research Groups.</p>

<h2 class="heading">How to apply</h2>

<p>Formal applications for research degree study should be made online through the&nbsp;<a href="https://eps.leeds.ac.uk/civil-engineering-research-degrees/doc/apply">University&#39;s website</a>. Please select &ldquo;PhD Civil Engineering Full-time&rdquo; as your planned course of study, and&nbsp;state clearly in the research information section&nbsp;that the research degree you wish to be considered for is &quot;Getting Off Gas: How can we use buried infrastructure as a heat source?&quot; as well as&nbsp;<a href="https://eps.leeds.ac.uk/civil-engineering/staff/861/dr-fleur-loveridge" target="_blank">Dr Fleur Loveridge</a> as your proposed supervisor.</p> <p>If English is not your first language, you must provide evidence that you meet the University&#39;s minimum English language requirements (below).</p> <p><em>We welcome applications from all suitably-qualified candidates, but UK black and minority ethnic (BME) researchers are currently under-represented in our Postgraduate Research community, and we would therefore particularly encourage applications from UK BME candidates. All scholarships will be awarded on the basis of merit.</em></p>

<h2 class="heading heading--sm">Entry requirements</h2>

Applicants to research degree programmes should normally have at least a first class or an upper second class British Bachelors Honours degree (or equivalent) in an appropriate discipline. The criteria for entry for some research degrees may be higher, for example, several faculties, also require a Masters degree. Applicants are advised to check with the relevant School prior to making an application. Applicants who are uncertain about the requirements for a particular research degree are advised to contact the School or Graduate School prior to making an application.

<h2 class="heading heading--sm">English language requirements</h2>

The minimum English language entry requirement for research postgraduate research study is an IELTS of 6.0 overall with at least 5.5 in each component (reading, writing, listening and speaking) or equivalent. The test must be dated within two years of the start date of the course in order to be valid.

<h2 class="heading">Funding on offer</h2>

<p>This is a 3 years scholarship funded by the University of Leeds through the Priestley International Centre for Climate. The award will provide tuition fees (&pound;4,500 for 2019/20), tax-free stipend at the UK research council rate (&pound;15,009 for 2019/20), and a research training and support grant of &pound;750 per annum</p>

<h2 class="heading">Contact details</h2>

<p>For further information about hte project&nbsp;please contact Dr Fleur Loveridge<br /> e:&nbsp;<a href="mailto:f.a.loveridge@leeds.ac.uk">f.a.loveridge@leeds.ac.uk</a>, t: +44 (0)113 343 2310.</p> <p>For further information about admissions or the application procedure please contact Doctoral College Admissions<br /> e: <a href="mailto:phd@engineering.leeds.ac.uk">phd@engineering.leeds.ac.uk</a>, t: +44 (0)113 343 5700</p>


<h3 class="heading heading--sm">Linked funding opportunities</h3>