Skip to main content

Enhancing Road Safety by Addressing the Risky Behaviour of Commercial Riders of Powered Two-Wheelers in Developing Countries


Key facts

Type of research degree
Application deadline
Ongoing deadline
Professor Oliver Carsten and Dr Yue Huang
Institute for Transport Studies
<h2 class="heading hide-accessible">Summary</h2>

The gig economy and a growing preference for online shopping and food ordering have led to huge growth in the urban delivery business internationally (Christie and Ward, 2019). It consequently rekindled road safety concerns and fuelled an old debate on the regulation and law enforcement of powered two-wheelers (PTWs) use. There is increasing evidence that work pressures associated with delivery riding encourage risky behaviours on the road (Oviedo-Trespalacios et al., 2022). However, there is little research that compares delivery and private PTW riders and addresses the risky behaviours of commercial PTW riders on urban roads.<br /> This project aims to investigate the need for behavioural change and design intervention to enhance PTW safety, primarily in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) where more than 90% of global road fatalities occur. Evidence, in recognition of the evolving behaviour and technology, will be collected to underscore the need. Study may include, but not limited to, the following behaviours:<br /> 1) Helmet use (variables include: electric bikes vs. pedal bikes; male riders vs. female riders)<br /> 2) Using mobile phone, handheld or in a cradle (variables include: trip purpose; age; socioeconomic status).<br /> 3) Red light running (variables include: infrastructure; location; education level; presence of camera/law enforcement).<br /> 4) Speeding. Literature suggested that organisational factors need further investigation. <br /> Findings of this study can be used for devising policies for reducing crashes of motorcycle taxis and couriers. Results will complement the safety measures developed for other road users such as the pedestrians (Sarker et al., 2023). Targeted interventions to reduce the risks of crashes can follow, as this form of transport has become more popular in recent years, since online companies launched motorcycle services for taxi or for food delivery. The stakeholders will include: <br /> 1) Governments which could make the service providers more aware of their employment obligations and/or enforce minimum safety standards.<br /> 2) Transport authorities which can apply the findings to develop appropriate countermeasures, particularly in legislation and rider training, to improve safety of PTWs and other road users.<br /> 3) Companies which can provide safeguards for employees, such as helmets, Bluetooth headphones, phone holders and maximum riding hours.<br /> 4) Infrastructure designers who need to take due safety consideration in providing road space to meet diverse needs of road users.

<h2 class="heading">How to apply</h2>

<p>Formal applications for research degree study should be made online through the&nbsp;<a href="">University&#39;s website</a>. Please state clearly in the research information section&nbsp;that the research degree you wish to be considered for is INSERT PROJECT TITLE HERE as well as&nbsp;NAME OF SUPERVISOR AS LINK TO PROFILE&nbsp;as your proposed supervisor.</p> <p>If English is not your first language, you must provide evidence that you meet the University&#39;s minimum English language requirements (below).</p> <p><em>As an international research-intensive university, we welcome students from all walks of life and from across the world. We foster an inclusive environment where all can flourish and prosper, and we are proud of our strong commitment to student education. Across all Faculties we are dedicated to diversifying our community and we welcome the unique contributions that individuals can bring, and particularly encourage applications from, but not limited to Black, Asian, people who belong to a minority ethnic community, people who identify as LGBT+ and people with disabilities. Applicants will always be selected based on merit and ability.</em></p>

<h2 class="heading heading--sm">Entry requirements</h2>

Applicants to research degree programmes should normally have at least a first class or an upper second class British Bachelors Honours degree (or equivalent) in an appropriate discipline. The criteria for entry for some research degrees may be higher, for example, several faculties, also require a Masters degree. Applicants are advised to check with the relevant School prior to making an application. Applicants who are uncertain about the requirements for a particular research degree are advised to contact the School or Graduate School prior to making an application.

<h2 class="heading heading--sm">English language requirements</h2>

The minimum English language entry requirement for research postgraduate research study is an IELTS of 6.0 overall with at least 5.5 in each component (reading, writing, listening and speaking) or equivalent. The test must be dated within two years of the start date of the course in order to be valid. Some schools and faculties have a higher requirement.

<h2 class="heading">Contact details</h2>

<p>For further information please contact the Graduate School Office<br /> e:&nbsp;<a href=""></a>, t: +44 (0)113 343 5348.</p>