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Modelling transformability of multi-modal networks for resilient transport infrastructure planning

PGR-P-1098

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Key facts

Type of research degree
PhD
Application deadline
Ongoing deadline
Country eligibility
International (open to all nationalities, including the UK)
Funding
Non-funded
Supervisors
Dr Judith Wang and Dr Judith Wang
Additional supervisors
Dr Zhiyuan Lin
Schools
School of Civil Engineering
Research groups/institutes
Cities and Infrastructure
<h2 class="heading hide-accessible">Summary</h2>

Resilience is a trendy word but unlike sustainability, it does not have a unified definition. Resilience is originally a concept in ecology first introduced by Holling as a measure of the persistence of systems and their ability to absorb change and disturbance and still maintain the same relation- ships between populations or state variables [1]. As Holling [2] pointed out, there are two faces of resilience in ecology: engineering resilience and ecological resilience. Engineering resilience focuses on efficiency, constancy and predictability. This is the core of engineering design, i.e. a fail-safe design. On the other hand, ecological resilience focuses on persistence, change and unpredictability. In this case, resilience is about the amount of change a system can take before it flips to an alternate stability domain. In other words, this refers to safe-fail designs with an evolutionary perspective [2]. <br /> <br /> Transportation systems are similar to ecological systems, in the sense that they are both complex, adaptive and self-organising. By applying the concepts of resilience in ecology, Wang [4] defined comprehensive resilience in transportation as the quality that leads to recovery, reliability and sustainability. It appears that resilience in transportation by default is associated with engineering resilience. Focussing only on engineering resilience imposes the danger of reducing the resilience of the system in other aspects. <br /> <br /> In ecology, transformability becomes very important when a system is in a stability regime that is considered undesirable, and it is either impossible, or getting progressively harder and harder, to engineer a flip to the original or some other stability regime of that same system [3]. In transport planning, transformability is central to comprehensive resilience in transportation [4], which is a perspective that has been overlooked in resilience analysis. <br /> <br /> To support comprehensive resilience analysis, this study aims to develop modelling techniques to assess and optimise comprehensive resilience of multi-modal transport networks. In particular, the study will deploy a full system approach, considering the possibilities of transforming system components which might not be integrated under normal conditions, for example, methodologies to transform passenger transport to become part of a multi-modal freight network for emergency supplies delivery. <br /> <br /> The objective of this study is to develop multi-objective network optimisation models to assess the transformability of multi-modal networks. It is anticipated that by maximising the transformability of the total system, the resilience of a multi-modal network of transportation system can be enhanced for both day-to-day and emergency situations.

<h2 class="heading hide-accessible">Full description</h2>

<p><span style="font-family:&quot;CMR10&quot;,serif; font-size:10.0pt">Some research questions include: </span></p> <p style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops:list 36.0pt"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-family:&quot;CMR10&quot;,serif; font-size:10.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family:CMR10; mso-fareast-font-family:CMR10"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">1.<span style="font:7.0pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span style="font-family:&quot;CMR10&quot;,serif; font-size:10.0pt">How can the consideration of resilience be modelled and measured in a system such as a supply chain network for emergency supplies delivery? </span></p> <p style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops:list 36.0pt"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-family:&quot;CMR10&quot;,serif; font-size:10.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family:CMR10; mso-fareast-font-family:CMR10"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">2.<span style="font:7.0pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span style="font-family:&quot;CMR10&quot;,serif; font-size:10.0pt">How can resilience be considered in the decision analysis or planning process for a trans- portation system under both normal condition and emergency situation? </span></p> <p style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops:list 36.0pt"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-family:&quot;CMR10&quot;,serif; font-size:10.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family:CMR10; mso-fareast-font-family:CMR10"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">3.<span style="font:7.0pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span style="font-family:&quot;CMR10&quot;,serif; font-size:10.0pt">How can multi-objective optimisation be applied in assessing transformability and resilience for a multi-modal transportation system? </span></p> <div class="page" title="Page 2"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p><span style="font-family:'CMBX12'; font-size:14.000000pt">References </span></p> <p><span style="font-family:'CMR10'; font-size:10.000000pt">[1] Holling, C. S. (1973). Resilience and stability for ecological systems. </span><span style="font-family:'CMTI10'; font-size:10.000000pt">Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics</span><span style="font-family:'CMR10'; font-size:10.000000pt">, </span><span style="font-family:'CMBX10'; font-size:10.000000pt">4</span><span style="font-family:'CMR10'; font-size:10.000000pt">, 1&ndash;23. </span></p> <p><span style="font-family:'CMR10'; font-size:10.000000pt">[2] Holling, C. S. (1996). </span><span style="font-family:'CMTI10'; font-size:10.000000pt">Engineering within ecological constraints</span><span style="font-family:'CMR10'; font-size:10.000000pt">, chapter Engineering resilience versus ecological resilience, pages 31&ndash;44. National Academy Press. </span></p> <p><span style="font-family:'CMR10'; font-size:10.000000pt">[3] McDonald, T. and Walker, B. (2007). Resilience thinking: Interview with Brian Walker. </span><span style="font-family:'CMTI10'; font-size:10.000000pt">Ecological Management and Restoration</span><span style="font-family:'CMR10'; font-size:10.000000pt">, </span><span style="font-family:'CMBX10'; font-size:10.000000pt">8</span><span style="font-family:'CMR10'; font-size:10.000000pt">(2), 85&ndash;91. </span></p> <p><span style="font-family:'CMR10'; font-size:10.000000pt">[4] Wang, J. Y. T. (2015). &lsquo;Resilience thinking&rsquo; in transport planning. </span><span style="font-family:'CMTI10'; font-size:10.000000pt">Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems</span><span style="font-family:'CMR10'; font-size:10.000000pt">, </span><span style="font-family:'CMBX10'; font-size:10.000000pt">32</span><span style="font-family:'CMR10'; font-size:10.000000pt">(1-2), 180&ndash;191. </span></p> </div> </div> </div> <p style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops:list 36.0pt">&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p>

<h2 class="heading">How to apply</h2>

<p>Formal applications for research degree study should be made online through the&nbsp;<a href="http://www.leeds.ac.uk/rsa/prospective_students/apply/I_want_to_apply.html">University&#39;s website</a>. Please state clearly in the Planned Course of Study section that you are applying for <em><strong>PHD Civil Engineering FT </strong></em>and in the research information section&nbsp;that the research degree you wish to be considered for is <em><strong>Modelling transformability of multi-modal networks for resilient transport infrastructure planning&nbsp;</strong></em>as well as <a href="mailto: https://eps.leeds.ac.uk/civil-engineering/staff/611/dr-judith-wang">Dr Judith Wang</a> as your proposed supervisor.</p> <p>If English is not your first language, you must provide evidence that you meet the University&#39;s minimum English language requirements (below).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p>

<h2 class="heading heading--sm">Entry requirements</h2>

Applicants to research degree programmes should normally have at least a first class or an upper second class British Bachelors Honours degree (or equivalent) in an appropriate discipline. The criteria for entry for some research degrees may be higher, for example, several faculties, also require a Masters degree. Applicants are advised to check with the relevant School prior to making an application. Applicants who are uncertain about the requirements for a particular research degree are advised to contact the School or Graduate School prior to making an application.

<h2 class="heading heading--sm">English language requirements</h2>

The minimum English language entry requirement for research postgraduate research study is an IELTS of 6.0 overall with at least 5.5 in each component (reading, writing, listening and speaking) or equivalent. The test must be dated within two years of the start date of the course in order to be valid. Some schools and faculties have a higher requirement.

<h2 class="heading">Funding on offer</h2>

<p><strong>Self-Funded or externally sponsored students are welcome to apply.</strong></p> <p><strong>UK&nbsp;</strong>&ndash;&nbsp;The&nbsp;<a href="https://phd.leeds.ac.uk/funding/209-leeds-doctoral-scholarships-2022">Leeds Doctoral Scholarships</a>, <a href="https://phd.leeds.ac.uk/funding/198-akroyd-and-brown-scholarship-2022">Akroyd &amp; Brown</a>, <a href="https://phd.leeds.ac.uk/funding/199-frank-parkinson-scholarship-2022">Frank Parkinson</a> and <a href="https://phd.leeds.ac.uk/funding/204-boothman-reynolds-and-smithells-scholarship-2022">Boothman, Reynolds &amp; Smithells</a> Scholarships are available to UK applicants. &nbsp;<a href="https://phd.leeds.ac.uk/funding/60-alumni-bursary">Alumni Bursary</a> is available to graduates of the University of Leeds.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Non-UK</strong>&nbsp;&ndash;The&nbsp;<a href="https://phd.leeds.ac.uk/funding/48-china-scholarship-council-university-of-leeds-scholarships-2021">China Scholarship Council - University of Leeds Scholarship</a>&nbsp;is available to nationals of China. The&nbsp;<a href="https://phd.leeds.ac.uk/funding/73-leeds-marshall-scholarship">Leeds Marshall Scholarship</a>&nbsp;is available to support US citizens. &nbsp;<a href="https://phd.leeds.ac.uk/funding/60-alumni-bursary">Alumni Bursary</a> is available to graduates of the University of Leeds.</p> <p>Please refer to the <a href="https://www.ukcisa.org.uk/">UKCISA</a> website for information regarding Fee Status for Non-UK Nationals starting from September/October 2021.</p>

<h2 class="heading">Contact details</h2>

<p>For further information about this project, please contact Dr Judith Wang<br /> e: <a href="mailto:EMAIL@leeds.ac.uk">j.y.t.wang@leeds.ac.uk</a>, t: +44 (0)113 343 3259.</p> <p>For further information regarding your application, please contact Doctoral College Admissions<br /> e: <a href="mailto:phd@engineering.leeds.ac.uk">phd@engineering.leeds.ac.uk</a>, t: +44 (0)113 343 5057.</p>